Known as the "Rainbow Gemstone", Tourmaline is available in almost every colour of the spectrum. The name was derived from the Singhalese "Tura mali" meaning mixed colours and the range of colours covered by this exquisite gem is truly amazing. When heated, Tourmaline becomes charged and was used by the Dutch to draw ashes from their pipes, becoming known as "Aschentrekker". Thus, should Tourmaline be subjected to either direct sunlight or intense incandescent lighting, it will often attract dust. Prices for Tourmaline will vary dramatically and several of the varieties are listed separately. The most coveted example of Tourmaline is that of the “Paraiba” Tourmaline, an almost neon or fluorescent material coloured by the element Copper. Coming from the Paraiba area in Brazil, these extraordinary members of the Tourmaline family vary from intense greens to the most coveted colour of all, the intense, clear blue that commands stratospheric prices. Found only in the late 1980's, this material is close to exhausted with next to no material being found in recent times. However, new deposits of Copper coloured (Cuprian) Tourmaline have been found in Mozambique, and more lately in Nigeria, and are also known as “Paraiba” despite not being from the Brazillian deposits. This material is often cleaner to the eye than the original material from Brazil, though it is often less intense in colour and attracts lower prices, though large, clean and intense coloured examples are still very rare and attract very high prices.